The Mariana Trench is located in western Pacific Ocean approximately 200 kilometres east of the Mariana Islands and has the deepest natural trench in the world. It is a crescent-shaped trough in the Earth's crust averaging about 2,550 km long and 69 km wide. The maximum known depth is 10,994 metres. However, some unrepeated measurements place the deepest portion at 11,034 metres. If Mount Everest were dropped into the trench at this point, its peak would still be over two kilometres under water. At the bottom of the trench the water column above exerts a pressure of 1,086 bars more than 1000 times the standard atmospheric pressure at sea level. The trench is not the part of the seafloor closest to the center of the earth. This is because the Earth is not a perfect sphere.
Surprising facts about the deepest part of the ocean :
- Mariana Trench is crescent shaped or semi-circular.
- The deepest spot of Mariana Trench is called the Challenger Deep.
- Mariana Trench's temperature is so low, ranging from 34F to 39F. That is considered to be one the world's coldest places.
- The pressure at Mariana Trench is 1000 times that of the sea level's atmospheric pressure.
- Research suggests that Mariana Trench is approximately 180 million years old and is considered to be one of the oldest seabeds in the world.
Marine monsters found below Mariana Trench :
1) Fangtooth :- Fangtooths are beryciform fish of the family Anoplogastridae that live in deep sea. The fangtooth is found 500 to 5000 metres below the surface in tropical and temperate oceans. Looking like it just swam out of a horror movie is the amazing fangtooth. The fangtooth gets its name from its rather impressive looking teeth, which are actually the largest teeth of any fish in the ocean when taken in proportion to body size. The two middle fangs on its lower jaw grow so long. They have two slot into sockets on either side of its brain when it closes its mouth. Although the fangtooth may look like a true monster. It is actually a small fish, reaching a maximum length of only six inches.
2) Megalodon :- Megalodon meaning "big tooth". It is an extinct species of shark that lived approximately 23 to 3.6 million years ago, during the Early Miocene to the end of the Pliocene. It was formerly thought to be a member of the Lamnidae family, making it closely related to the great white shark. The exact lengths of these ancient sharks are still in discussion. However, we do know that the Megalodon was approximately 40 to 70 feet long. They are also known as the "megatooth"shark and was the largest carnivorous fish that has ever existed on Mother Earth.
3) Liopleurodon :- Liopleurodon is a genus of large, carnivorous marine reptile belonging to the Pliosauroidea, a clade of short-necked plesiosaurs. Liopleurodon was 80 feet long. The two species of Liopleurodon lived during the Callovian stage of the Middle Jurassic Period. It was the apex predator of the Middle to the Late Jurassic seas that covered Europe. Liopleurodon fossils have been found mainly England and France. Some paleontologists believe that it was rather swift in the water and could possibly swim as fast as a shark.
4) Hainosaurus :- Hainosaurus is an extinct genus of marine lizard belonging to the mosasaur family. Hainosaurus is a member of the subfamily Tylosaurinae and it is related to the wholly North American Tylosaurus. It is one of the largest mosasaurs, though its size has been revised more than once. At first it was estimated to be 17 metres and the largest mosasaurid. Much of their day would have been spent swimming slowly near the seabed looking for suitable prey to attack.
5) Helicoprion :- Helicoprion is an extinct shark which lived approximately 290 to 250 million years ago during the Early Permian to Early Triassic Periods. Helicoprion are believed to have been 25 feet long and weighed approximately 1,000 pounds. Almost all fossil specimens are of spirally arranged clusters of the individual teeth, called "tooth whorls". It was first discovered in Russia by Andrzej P. Karpinski. In 1889, he named it Helicoprion - a name which means "spiral saw". The Helicoprion also likely ate soft-tissue prey such as squid, rather that hunting creatures with hard shells.
6) Odobenocetops :- Odobenocetops was a small whale that lived about 2 million years ago during the Pliocene. It had two tusks and in some fossils, one tusk was longer than the other. Odobenocetops is an extinct genus of small toothed whale known from Peru and Chile. Its fossils are found in Neogene-aged marine strata dating from the Tortonian to the Zanclean. Odobenocetops was an early member of the dolphin super family. It measured about 2.1m long and weighted between 150 to 650 kg. Its neck articulation show that it was very flexible, being able to turn its head over 90 degrees. It is thought that Odobenocetops may have been among the prey of the prehistoric giant shark.