History of India,
Effects of Mahmud’s Invasions, it would not be correct to label Mahmud as a mere plunderes and ignore his role. His invasions had many effects chief amongst whom are the following:
1. Political Effects. Though Muslim empire in India was not founded in the wake of Mahmud ’5 Indian invasions yet it would not be inproper to say that his invasions opened the way for it. The political condition of India underwent a change with the conquest of the Punjab and Multan by Mahmud Gaznavi. These areas came to be under direct control of the Turks and they could invade the Ganges plain any time after crossing the hills protecting the North Western frontier of India. Though for the next 150 years the Turks could not bring this area under their control but it would have to be accepted that Mahmud Gaznavi’s invasions made the task of Muhammad Gori easier.
2.Destruction of art Pieces in India. Because of the 17 invasions of Mahmud many beautiful temples idols and artistic pieces were destroyed. He destroyed prosperous cities like that of Nagarkot, Mathura, Kannauj and Somnath. Many skilled artisans were either done to death or were carried away by him as slaves. This adversally affected the progress of these artistic pieces.
3. Acquisition of Wealth. 'The effect of Mohmud’s invasions on Indian cities and temples was not favourable. Almost every time he left laden with gold, silver, diamonds etc. which helped him to maintain a powerful and large standing army. It protected him his empire from the Central Arabic powers and helped him to expand his empire. From Punjab and Multan he got vast sum of money every year as tax.
4. Effect on Islam. Mahmud’s invasions definitely led to Spread of Islam in the Punjab, Multan and a few other areas in India. Equally definitely his atrocities inspired hatred towards Islam. But later on this religion was spread gradually by the Saints and missionaries who had come with Mahmud. In fact because of these invasions Turks came to be the propagator of Islam. Later on this religion affected Indian policies and society. Zafar writers that Muslim invaders were accompanied by Muslim Saints as well who worked for spreading Islam in India.
5. Adverse Psychological Effect in the Rajputs. Sdm’e historians are of the opinion that the morale of Rajput rulers was weakened because of their continuous defeat on the hands of Mahmud Gazni and they made no effort for gaining back the Punjab and the Multan. But this view does not seem to be very correct because for the next 150 years the Turks could not establish their empire in India and in the first battle as Tarain in 1191 Muhammad Ghori was defeated by Prithviraj Chauhan. Though there is no doubt that the Rajputs of the period did not give up their traditional rivalries and jealousies and did not try to save Punjab from the clutches of the invaders.
6. Spread. of Indian Art in Central Asia. Mahmud took with him many artisans. Through their creations they not only gave prestige to Mahmud but also enriched Central Asia with Indian cultural contribution.
7. Effect on Royal Houses. Mahmud Gaznavi’s invasions had a very adverse effect on the royal houses, Many of were so weakened that they could not retain their hold for long and some were extinguished totally.
8. Appointment of Indians to Military Posts. Some historians hold that Mahmud and his successor Mansur gave livelihood to many Hindus in the army. It is said that Mansud's army comprised 50% Indians. Some of them were appointed even to higher posts like Tilak and Sewand Ram.
9. Description of Alberuni. With Mahmud of Gazni also came Muhammed-bin-Ahmad who is knowing generally as Alberuni. His work Kitab-ul-Hind (Tehklkat-I-Hind) is a valuable source of information about India. In it Alberum had given a critical of Indian social, religious and political condition, Indian philosophy, maths geography and astronomy.
10. Spread of Persian . After Mahmud’s invasion, Lahore gradually became the centre of Persian culture. From the Punjab many Persian scholars, missionaries, traders etc. began to travel 10 other parts of India. In course of time Indo Persian administrative institution developed in India.